Complete Guide to learning Valency Chart

Do you know how chemical formulas are calculated for each element? For example, have you ever wondered why the carbon dioxide formula is represented as  CO2  and not as “ COO “? All these questions can be answered by a Valency Chart. Let’s see how we can learn most of the valency chart through the following topics. 

  • Valency Chart 
  • Oxidation State 
  • Valency and Oxidation State relationship 
  • Examples of Valency 

What is Valency?

Complete Guide to learning Valency Chart

In order to stabilize the addition between atoms of two different elements, the measuring capacity of atoms in the elements must be calculated, which is defined as Valency. For example, if atoms in the outermost orbital levels are not stable, they either break or add more atoms to stabilize themselves in order to gain sufficient energy from outside. Moreover, the chart which consists of the individual valency of all the different elements in the periodic table is called a Valency Chart of all elements. 

What is Oxidation State?

Now, let’s talk about what Oxidation State is. As mentioned before, when atoms from different elements are added together, then depending on the element and its atomic number, it will lose or gain atoms to form a chemical bond. This process is called Oxidation State.  

Difference Between Oxidation State and Valency

Now that we have a good idea about the Oxidation State and Valency. Let us now discuss briefly the multiple differences between Valency and Oxidation States. 

Parameters  Valency   Oxidation State 
Definition  The maximum no of electrons an atom loses or gains in order to stabilize itself.  While oxidation is a state that is defined as the no of electrons an atom loses or gains to form a bond with a different atom. 
Representation  It is generally represented using a numerical value.  It is represented using Roman Numbers. 
Calculation  It is calculated with the help of the electronic configuration of the said element.  Whereas the Oxidation number is calculated with help of the overall charge of a coordination complex, and ligands. 
Electric Charge  Through valency electric charge cannot be found.  While oxidation the electric charge is found. 

Valency of Various Elements

As explained before, the valency of various elements usually varies due to different periodic trends in oxidation states, such as Oxidation State Variation over time, within a group, etc. 

Element   Atomic Number  Valency   Oxidation State 
Hydrogen   1  1  +1,0,-1 
Helium  2  0  No Oxidation 
Lithium  3  1  +1 
Beryllium  4  2  +1,+2 
Boron  5  3  +1,+2,+3,0,-1,-3 
Carbon  6  4  +1,+2,+3,+4,0,-1,-2,-3,-4 
Nitrogen  7  3  +1,+2,+3,+4,+5,0,-1,-2,-3 
Oxygen  8  2  +1,+2,0,-1,-2 
Fluorine  9  1  -1 
Neon  10  0  0 
Sodium  11  1  +1,-1 
Magnesium  12  2  +1,+2 
Aluminium  13  3  -1,-2,+1,+2,+3 
Silicon  14  4  +1,+2,+3,+4,-1,-2,-3,-4 
Phosphorus  15  3  +1,+2,+3,+4,+5,0,-1,-2,-3 
Sulphur  16  2  +1,+2,+3,+4,+5,+6,0,-1,-2 
Chlorine  17  1  +1,+2,+3,+4,+5,+6,+7,0,-1 
Argon  18  0  0 
Potassium   19  1  +1,-1 
Calcium  20  2  +1,+2 
Scandium  21  3  +1,+2,+3 
Titanium  22  4  +,+2,+3,+4,-1,-2 
Vanadium  23  5,4  +1,+2,+3,+4,+5,-1,-3 
Chromium  24  2  +1,+2,+3,+4,+5,+6,-1,-2,-4 
Manganese  25  7,4,3  +1,+2,+3,+4,+5,+6,+7,-1,-2,-3 
Iron  26  2,3  +1,+2,+3,+4,+5,+6,-1,-2 
Cobalt  27  3,2  +1,+2,+3,+4,+5,-1,-3 
Nickel  28  2  +1,+2,+3,+4,-1,-2 
Copper  29  2,1  +1,+2,+3,+4,-2 
Zinc  30  1  +1,+2,-2 


If you would like to learn more about Valency, Oxidation State, and how to memorize the valency chart, as well as their relationship, join Tutoroot Online Interactive Classes, where you can get a Personalized Learning Experience. Visit our website to know more about our benefits like Doubt Clarification Sessions, Expert Staff Guidance, etc. 

Frequently Asked Questions

How the valency is calculated? 

With the help of the atomic number of the element and its electronic configuration, Valency can be calculated. 

Does valency have a charge? 

No, the Valency of an ion is said to be equal to its charge. Which is why valency does not have a sign. 

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.